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Contraindications for hirudotherapy

The list of commonly established contraindications for hirudotherapy (P. Flecken, A. Michalsen):

  • Haemophilia and anticoagulants (acenocoumarol, marcumar, warfarin, heparin and heparinoids)
  • Anemia
  • Upper gastrointestinal tract post – haemorrhage condition
  • Severe infection
  • Severe internal diseases and immunosuppression
  • Severe allergy
  • Pregnancy
  • Wound healing compplications
  • Children and unconscious patients
  • Mental impairment
  • Keloids
  • Bleeding disorder
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Diabetic foot and tissue necrosis
  • Dermatomycoses
  • Skin malignancies
  • Skin tissue loss. ulceration, decubitus
  • Autoimmunological pemphigus

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